The american medical community has made great strides in the recognition and treatment of carcinomas. Carcinoma occurs when the DNA of a cell is damaged or altered in such a way that the cell grows uncontrollably and becomes malignant. These malignant tumors can become cancerous and are the basis for what defines breast cancer. These studied mutations help us to detect and treat breast cancer.
To better understand treatment options, we have to understand how mutations work. To keep the science behind detection simple, you have to understand that the cells in our bodies grown and die by the millions each day. A percentage of these cells mutate due to incorrect sequencing. The greater the frequency of mutations, the greater the chance that the cells become cancerous. As an example, lung cancer has a mutation frequency of about 106,000 per diploid genome while breast cancer has a rate of about 8000.
The CDH1 Gene Mutation
One of the most understood breast cancer gene mutations is the cdh1 gene mutation. This gene is responsible for making proteins called Epithelial cadherin or E-cadherin. Cadherins are groups or families of proteins that are responsible for cells sticking together to form tissues. E-cadherin is a very important protein because it acts as a tumor suppressor. A natural defense to prevent tumors. A defect in this gene will increase a woman’s chance to develop breast cancer in the milk producing glands. So now the men think they are safe but this genetic defect is also responsible for prostate cancer.
How Is It Detected?
So we have established a cause of cancer but how is it really detected by doctors. Now that the gene is understood, science has developed E-cadherin antibody to detect mutations. The cadherin antibody is created in mice or rabbits, sterilized and irradiated for detection. The antibody attaches itself to mutated tumors so doctors can detect carcinoma better. Companies like e biosciences create the cadherin antibody used for testing.